HARD TIMES - Charles Dickens

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In Hard Times Charles Dickens adopts a narrator, who is .
He privileges the technique of and is therefore .

The very name of the town recalls the use of coke, a , in the production of industrial goods and is thus the main topic.

Then, a lot of images are introduced:
1. the black and white of the landscape is compared to the painted -
MEANING: the landscape

2. the movement of pistons of the factories are compared to in utter madness. -
MEANING: the rhythm of the industrial factories

3. The fumes of the industrialized Coketown are described as "interminable of smoke -
MEANING: the factory fumes of the industrial town.

These literary devices are , which are a form of figures of speech.

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Together with them, the descriptions also appeals to the senses, with a lot of references to visual images, sounds and smells

- The unnatural black and red of the town as a whole -

- The river ill-smelling with dye -

- the red of the bricks covered by the black of smoke and ashes-

- a rattling and a trembling all day long -

- the black of the canal-

- The people on the pavements going in and out -

- the purple of the river because of the dye in it -

- the black and white of the severe characters in all the public inscriptions in the town -

For this reason, the language is highly .

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Then, the town is described as mostly made of red where every building looks like every other building: the library could be the bank, the bank could be the school, and so on.

This is given by the extensive use of phrases such as " one another" , "the ", "forever and , and , which are .

These reinforce the idea of the of the environment but also of the 's lives.

It gives the idea of a town built to be as as possible, with creativity in its architecture.

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Then the author enlarges the focus on the immaterial aspects of the town and concludes that everything in Coketown is , everything is and nothing is considered important unless it can , just to say that the spiritual, emotional side of life does not exist in Coketown.

The literary devices used all contribute to convey the idea that the industrial town is not only , but that the spiritual, emotional side of life is utterly : that the of the environment is the counterpart to the of people's lives.

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Hard times, with its main characters devoted to facts and the setting in a town where the people have lost their identity, is a clear attack to , emphazising industrial production.

With his sarcasm about the "facts" of Coketown and the people living there, Dickens rejects its rationality and approach in every walk of life, which negated the concept of depriving people of .